In this fantastic judgement the honourable goes on to state how independent the modern woman is. How she has removed all the shackles and fetters. In spite of all the praise and singing, finally the court orders the evil MAN pay maintenance… Wait a minute… WHY is the free woman not maintaining herself?? WHY is the free woman expecting free money from a stupid man?? We are left with no answers to these questions but to let the reader continue reading this classic case !!!
Parameters for determining quantum of maintenance to paid under S125 of crpc Coming to the reduction of quantum by the High Court, it is noticed that the High Court has shown immense sympathy to the husband by reducing the amount after his retirement. It has come on record that the husband was getting a monthly salary of Rs.17,654/-. The High Court, without indicating any reason, has reduced the monthly maintenance allowance to Rs.2,000/-. In today’s world, it is extremely difficult to conceive that a woman of her status would be in a position to manage within Rs.2,000/- per month. It can never be forgotten that the inherent and fundamental principle behind Section 125 CrPC is for amelioration of the financial state of affairs as well as mental agony and anguish that woman suffers when she is compelled to leave her matrimonial home. The statute commands there has to be some acceptable arrangements so that she can sustain herself. The principle of sustenance gets more heightened when the children are with her. Be it clarified that sustenance does not mean and can never allow to mean a mere survival. A woman, who is constrained to leave the marital home, should not be allowed to feel that she has fallen from grace and move hither and thither arranging for sustenance. As per law, she is entitled to lead a life in the similar manner as she would have lived in the house of her husband. And that is where the status and strata of the husband comes into play and that is where the legal obligation of the husband becomes a prominent one. As long as the wife is held entitled to grant of maintenance within the parameters of Section 125 CrPC, it has to be adequate so that she can live with dignity as she would have lived in her matrimonial home. She cannot be compelled to become a destitute or a beggar. There can be no shadow of doubt that an order under Section 125 CrPC can be passed if a person despite having sufficient means neglects or refuses to maintain the wife.
IN THE SUPREME COURT OF INDIA
CRIMINAL APPELLATE JURISDICTION
CRIMINAL APPEAL NOS.564-565 OF 2015
[Arising out of SLP (Crl.) Nos. 6380-6381 of 2014]
SHAMIMA FAROOQUI V SHAHID KHAN
Dated;APRIL 06, 2015.
When centuries old obstructions are removed, age old shackles are either burnt or lost their force, the chains get rusted, and the human endowments and virtues are not indifferently treated and emphasis is laid on “free identity” and not on “annexed identity”, and the women of today can gracefully and boldly assert their legal rights and refuse to be tied down to the obscurant conservatism, and further determined to ostracize the “principle of commodity”, and the “barter system” to devoutly engage themselves in learning, criticizing and professing certain principles with committed sensibility and participating in all pertinent and concerned issues, there is no warrant or justification or need to pave the innovative multi-avenues which the law does not countenance or give its stamp of approval. Chivalry, a perverse sense of human egotism, and clutching of feudal megalomaniac ideas or for that matter, any kind of condescending attitude have no room. They are bound to be sent to the ancient woods, and in the new horizon people should proclaim their own ideas and authority. They should be able to say that they are the persons of modern age and they have the ideas of today’s “Bharat”. Any other idea floated or any song sung in the invocation of male chauvinism is the proposition of an alien, a total stranger – an outsider. That is the truth in essentiality.
- The facts which are requisite to stated for adjudication of these appeals are that the appellant filed an application under Section 125 of the Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC) contending, inter alia, that she married Shahid Khan, the respondent herein, on 26.4.1992 and during her stay at the matrimonial home she was prohibited 3 from talking to others, and the husband not only demanded a car from the family but also started harassing her. A time came when he sent her to the parental home where she was compelled to stay for almost three months. The indifferent husband did not come to take her back to the matrimonial home, but she returned with the fond and firm hope that the bond of wedlock would be sustained and cemented with love and peace but as the misfortune would have it, the demand for the vehicle continued and the harassment was used as a weapon for fulfilment of the demand. In due course she came to learn that the husband had illicit relationship with another woman and he wanted to marry her. Usual to sense of human curiosity and wife’s right when she asked him she was assaulted. The situation gradually worsened and it became unbearable for her to stay at the matrimonial home. At that juncture, she sought help of her parents who came and took her to the parental home at Lucknow where she availed treatment. Being deserted and ill-treated and, in a way, suffering from fear psychosis she took shelter in the house of her parents and when all her hopes got shattered for reunion, she filed an application for grant of maintenance at the rate of 4 Rs.4000/- per month on the foundation that husband was working on the post of Nayak in the Army and getting a salary of Rs.10,000/- approximately apart from other perks.
The application for grant of maintenance was resisted with immense vigour by the husband disputing all the averments pertaining to demand of dowry and harassment and further alleging that he had already given divorce to her on 18.6.1997 and has also paid the Mehar to her.
A reply was filed to the same by wife asserting that she had neither the knowledge of divorce nor had she received an amount of Mehar.
During the proceeding before the learned Family Judge the wife-appellant examined herself and another, and the respondent-husband himself. examined four witnesses, including The learned Family Judge, Family Court, Lucknow while dealing with the application forming the subject matter Criminal Case No. 1120 of 1998 did not accept the primary objection as regards the maintainability under Section 125 CrPC as the applicant was a Muslim woman and came to hold even after the divorce the application of the wife under Section 125 CrPC was maintainable in the family court. Thereafter, 5 the learned Family Judge appreciating the evidence brought on record came to opine that the marriage between the parties had taken place on 26.4.1992; that the husband had given divorce on 18.6.1997; that she was ill treated at her matrimonial home; and that she had come back to her parental house and staying there; that the husband had not made any provision for grant of maintenance; that the wife did not have any source of income to support her, and the plea advanced by the husband that she had means to sustain her had not been proved; that as the husband was getting at the time of disposal of the application as per the salary certificate Rs.17654/- and accordingly directed that a sum of Rs.2500/- should be paid as monthly maintenance allowance from the date of submission of application till the date of judgment and thereafter Rs.4000/- per month from the date of judgment till the date of remarriage.
The aforesaid order passed by the learned Family Judge came to be assailed before the High Court in Criminal Revision wherein, the High Court after adumbrating the facts referred to the decisions in Anita Rani v. Rakeshpal Singh1, 1 1991 (2) Crimes 725 (All) 6 Dharmendra Kumar Gupta v. Chander Prabha Devi2, Rakesh Kumar Dikshitnv.nJayanti Devi3, Ashutosh Tripathi v. State of U.P.4, Paras Nath Kurmi v. The Session Judge5 and Sartaj v. State of U.P. and others6 and came to hold that though the learned principal Judge, Family Court had not ascribed any reason for grant of maintenance from the date of application, yet when the case for maintenance was filed in the year 1998 decided on 17.2.2012 and there was no order for interim maintenance, the grant of Rs.2500/- as monthly maintenance from the date of application was neither illegal nor excessive. The High Court took note of the fact that the husband had retired on 1.4.2012 and consequently reduced the maintenance allowance to Rs.2000/-from 1.4.2012 till remarriage of the appellant herein. Being of this view the learned Single Judge modified the order passed by the Family Court. Hence, the present appeal by special leave, at the instance of the wife. 2n1990 Cr.L.J. 1884 1999 (2) JIC, 323 (ACC) 4 1999 (2) 763, Allahabad J.I.C 5 1999 (2) JIC 522 All 6 2000 (2) JIC 967 All 37
We have heard Dr. J.N. Dubey, learned senior counsel for the appellant. Despite service of notice, none has appeared for the respondent.
It is submitted by Dr. Dubey, learned senior counsel that Section 125 CrPC is applicable to the Muslim women and the Family Court has jurisdiction to decide the issue. It is urged by him that the High Court has fallen into error by opining that the grant of maintenance at the rate of Rs.4,000/- per month is excessive and hence, it should be reduced to Rs.2000/- per month from the date of retirement of the husband i.e. 1.4.2012 till her re-marriage. It is also contended that the High Court failed to appreciate the plight of the appellant and reduced the amount and hence, the impugned order is not supportable in law.
First of all, we intend to deal with the applicability of Section 125 CrPC to a Muslim woman who has been divorced. In Shamim Bano v. Asraf Khan7, this Court after referring to the Constitution Bench decisions in Danial Latifi v. Union of India8 and Khatoon Nisa v. State of U.P.9 had opined as follows:-
(2014) 12 SCC 636
(2001) 7 SCC 740
(2014) 12 SCC 646
“13. The aforesaid principle clearly lays down that
even after an application has been filed under the
provisions of the Act, the Magistrate under the Act
has the power to grant maintenance in favour of a
divorced Muslim woman and the parameters and
the considerations are the same as stipulated in
Section 125 of the Code. We may note that while
taking note of the factual score to the effect that the
plea of divorce was not accepted by the Magistrate
which was upheld by the High Court, the
Constitution Bench opined that as the Magistrate
could exercise power under Section 125 of the Code
for grant of maintenance in favour of a divorced
Muslim woman under the Act, the order did not
warrant any interference. Thus, the emphasis was
laid on the retention of the power by the Magistrate
under Section 125 of the Code and the effect of
- Slightly recently, in Shabana Bano v. Imran
Khan10, a two-Judge Bench, placing reliance on
Danial Latifi (supra), has ruled that:-
“21. The appellant’s petition under Section
125 CrPC would be maintainable before
the Family Court as long as the appellant
does not remarry. The amount of
maintenance to be awarded under Section
125 CrPC cannot be restricted for the
iddat period only.”
Though the aforesaid decision was rendered
interpreting Section 7 of the Family Courts Act,
1984, yet the principle stated therein would be
applicable, for the same is in consonance with the
principle stated by the Constitution Bench in
Khatoon Nisa (supra).”
(2010) 1 SCC 666
In view of the aforesaid dictum, there can be no shadow
of doubt that Section 125 CrPC has been rightly held to be
applicable by the learned Family Judge.
On a perusal of the order passed by the Family Court, it
is manifest that it has taken note of the fact that the salary of
the husband was Rs.17,654/- in May, 2009.
Rs.2,500/- as monthly
It had fixed
the date of
submission of application till the date of order i.e. 17.2.2012
and from the date of order,
at the rate of Rs.4,000/- per
month till the date of remarriage. The High Court has opined
that while granting maintenance from the date of application,
judicial discretion has to be appropriately exercised, for the
High Court has noted that the grant of maintenance at the
rate of Rs.2,500/- per month from the date of application till
date of order, did not call for modification.
The aforesaid finding of the High Court, affirming the
view of the learned Family Judge is absolutely correct. But
what is disturbing is that though the application for grant of
maintenance was filed in the year 1998, it was not decided till
17.2.2012. It is also shocking to note that there was no order
for grant of interim maintenance.
It needs no special
emphasis to state that when an application for grant of
maintenance is filed by the wife the delay in disposal of the
application, to say the least, is an unacceptable situation. It
is, in fact, a distressing phenomenon.
An application for
grant of maintenance has to be disposed of at the earliest.
The family courts, which have been established to deal with
the matrimonial disputes, which include application under
Section 125 CrPC, have become absolutely apathetic to the
The concern and anguish that was expressed by this
Court in Bhuwan Mohan Singh v. Meena and Ors. 11, is to
the following effect:-
“13. The Family Courts have been established for
adopting and facilitating the conciliation procedure
and to deal with family disputes in a speedy and
expeditious manner. A three-Judge Bench in K.A.
Abdul Jaleel v. T.A. Shahida12, while highlighting
on the purpose of bringing in the Family Courts Act
by the legislature, opined thus:-
“The Family Courts Act was enacted to
provide for the establishment of Family
Courts with a view to promote conciliation
in, and secure speedy settlement of,
disputes relating to marriage and family
- The purpose of highlighting this aspect is that
in the case at hand the proceeding before the
AIR 2014 SC 2875
(2003) 4 SCC 166
Family Court was conducted without being alive to
the objects and reasons of the Act and the spirit of
the provisions Under Section 125 of the Code. It is
unfortunate that the case continued for nine years
before the Family Court. It has come to the notice
of the Court that on certain occasions the Family
Courts have been granting adjournments in a
routine manner as a consequence of which both the
parties suffer or, on certain occasions, the wife
becomes the worst victim. When such a situation
occurs, the purpose of the law gets totally
atrophied. The Family Judge is expected to be
sensitive to the issues, for he is dealing with
extremely delicate and sensitive issues pertaining
to the marriage and issues ancillary thereto. When
we say this, we do not mean that the Family Courts
should show undue haste or impatience, but there
is a distinction between impatience and to be wisely
anxious and conscious about dealing with a
situation. A Family Court Judge should remember
that the procrastination is the greatest assassin of
the lis before it. It not only gives rise to more family
problems but also gradually builds unthinkable
and Everestine bitterness. It leads to the cold
refrigeration of the hidden feelings, if still left. The
delineation of the lis by the Family Judge must
reveal the awareness and balance. Dilatory tactics
by any of the parties has to be sternly dealt with,
for the Family Court Judge has to be alive to the
fact that the lis before him pertains to emotional
fragmentation and delay can feed it to grow. We
hope and trust that the Family Court Judges shall
remain alert to this and decide the matters as
expeditiously as possible keeping in view the
objects and reasons of the Act and the scheme of
various provisions pertaining to grant of
maintenance, divorce, custody of child, property
predicament was not expected to be removed with any kind of
magic. However, the fact remains, these litigations can really
corrode the human relationship not only today but will also
have the impact for years to come and has the potentiality to
take a toll on the society.
It occurs either due to the
uncontrolled design of the parties or the lethargy and apathy
shown by the Judges who man the Family Courts.
As far as
the first aspect is concerned, it is the duty of the Courts to
There need not be hurry but procrastination
should not be manifest, reflecting the attitude of the Court.
As regards the second facet, it is the duty of the Court to have
the complete control over the proceeding and not permit the
lis to swim the unpredictable grand river of time without
knowing when shall it land on the shores or take shelter in a
corner tree that stands “still” on some unknown bank of the
river. It cannot allow it to sing the song of the brook. “Men
may come and men may go, but I go on for ever.” This would
be the greatest tragedy that can happen to the adjudicating
system which is required to deal with most sensitive matters
between the man and wife or other family members relating to
matrimonial and domestic affairs.
There has to be a
pro-active approach in this regard and the said approach
should be instilled in the Family Court Judges by the Judicial
Academies functioning under the High Courts.
present, we say no more.
Coming to the reduction of quantum by the High Court,
it is noticed that the High Court has shown immense
sympathy to the husband by reducing the amount after his
It has come on record that the husband was
getting a monthly salary of Rs.17,654/-.
The High Court, without indicating any reason, has
reduced the monthly maintenance allowance to Rs.2,000/-.
In today’s world, it is extremely difficult to conceive that a
woman of her status would be in a position to manage within
Rs.2,000/- per month.
It can never be forgotten that the
inherent and fundamental principle behind Section 125 CrPC
is for amelioration of the financial state of affairs as well as
mental agony and anguish that woman suffers when she is
compelled to leave her matrimonial home.
commands there has to be some acceptable arrangements so
that she can sustain herself.
The principle of sustenance
gets more heightened when the children are with her. Be it
clarified that sustenance does not mean and can never allow
to mean a mere survival.
A woman, who is constrained to
leave the marital home, should not be allowed to feel that she
has fallen from grace and move hither and thither arranging
for sustenance. As per law, she is entitled to lead a life in the
similar manner as she would have lived in the house of her
And that is where the status and strata of the
husband comes into play and that is where the legal
obligation of the husband becomes a prominent one. As long
as the wife is held entitled to grant of maintenance within the
parameters of Section 125 CrPC, it has to be adequate so that
she can live with dignity as she would have lived in her
She cannot be compelled to become a
destitute or a beggar. There can be no shadow of doubt that
an order under Section 125 CrPC can be passed if a person
despite having sufficient means neglects or refuses to
maintain the wife.
Sometimes, a plea is advanced by the
husband that he does not have the means to pay, for he does
not have a job or his business is not doing well. These are
only bald excuses and, in fact, they have no acceptability in
If the husband is healthy, able bodied and is in a
position to support himself, he is under the legal obligation to
support his wife, for wife’s right to receive maintenance under
Section 125 CrPC, unless disqualified, is an absolute right.
While determining the quantum of maintenance, this Court in
Jabsir Kaur Sehgal v. District Judge Dehradun & Ors.13
has held as follows:-
“The court has to consider the status of the parties,
their respective needs, the capacity of the husband
to pay having regard to his reasonable expenses for
his own maintenance and of those he is obliged
under the law and statutory but involuntary
maintenance fixed for the wife should be such as
she can live in reasonable comfort considering her
status and the mode of life she was used to when
she lived with her husband and also that she does
not feel handicapped in the prosecution of her case.
At the same time, the amount so fixed cannot be
excessive or extortionate.”
Grant of maintenance to wife has been perceived as a
measure of social justice by this Court.
In Chaturbhuj v.
Sita Bai14, it has been ruled that:-
“Section 125 CrPC is a measure of social justice
and is specially enacted to protect women and
children and as noted by this Court in Captain
Ramesh Chander Kaushal v. Veena Kaushal15 falls
within constitutional sweep of Article 15(3)
reinforced by Article 39 of the Constitution of India.
It is meant to achieve a social purpose. The object is
to prevent vagrancy and destitution. It provides a
speedy remedy for the supply of food, clothing and
(1997) 7 SCC 7
(2008) 2 SCC 316
(1978) 4 SCC 70
shelter to the deserted wife. It gives effect to
fundamental rights and natural duties of a man to
maintain his wife, children and parents when they
are unable to maintain themselves. The aforesaid
position was highlighted in Savitaben Somabhai
Bhatiya v. State of Gujarat16.”
This being the position in law, it is the obligation of the
husband to maintain his wife.
He cannot be permitted to
plead that he is unable to maintain the wife due to financial
constraints as long as he is capable of earning.
In this context, we may profitably quote a passage from
the judgment rendered by the High Court of Delhi in Chander
wherein it has been opined thus:-
“An able-bodied young man has to be presumed to
be capable of earning sufficient money so as to be
able reasonably to maintain his wife and child and
he cannot be heard to say that he is not in a
position to earn enough to be able to maintain them
according to the family standard. It is for such
able-bodies person to show to the Court cogent
grounds for holding that he is unable to reasons
beyond his control, to earn enough to discharge his
legal obligation of maintaining his wife and child.
When the husband does not disclose to the Court
the exact amount of his income, the presumption
will be easily permissible against him.”
(2005) 3 SCC 636
AIR 1968 Delhi 174
From the aforesaid enunciation of law it is limpid that
the obligation of the husband is on a higher pedestal when
the question of maintenance of wife and children arises.
When the woman leaves the matrimonial home, the situation
is quite different.
She is deprived of many a comfort.
Sometimes the faith in life reduces. Sometimes, she feels she
has lost the tenderest friend. There may be a feeling that her
fearless courage has brought her the misfortune.
stage, the only comfort that the law can impose is that the
husband is bound to give monetary comfort. That is the only
soothing legal balm, for she cannot be allowed to resign to
In the instant case, as is seen, the High Court has
reduced the amount of maintenance from Rs.4,000/- to
As is manifest, the High Court has become
oblivious of the fact that she has to stay on her own. Needless
to say, the order of the learned Family Judge is not manifestly
perverse. There is nothing perceptible which would show that
order is a sanctuary of errors.
In fact, when the order is
based on proper appreciation of evidence on record, no
revisional court should have interfered with the reason on the
base that it would have arrived at a different or another
When substantial justice has been done, there
was no reason to interfere. There may be a shelter over her
head in the parental house, but other real expenses cannot be
ignored. Solely because the husband had retired, there was
no justification to reduce the maintenance by 50%. It is not a
huge fortune that was showered on the wife that it deserved
reduction. It only reflects the non-application of mind and,
therefore, we are unable to sustain the said order.
Having stated the principle, we would have proceeded to
record our consequential conclusion. But, a significant one,
we cannot be oblivious of the asseverations made by the
It has been asserted that the respondent had
17.2.2012 with the purpose of escaping the liability to pay the
maintenance amount as directed to the petitioner; that the
last drawn salary of respondent taken into account by the
learned Family Judge was Rs.17,564/- as per salary slip of
May, 2009 and after deduction of AFPP Fund and AGI, the
salary of the respondent was Rs.12,564/- and hence, even on
the basis of the last basic pay (i.e. Rs.9,830/-) of the
respondent the total pension would come to Rs.14,611/- and
if 40% of commutation is taken into account then the pension
of the respondent amounts to Rs.11,535/-; and that the
respondent, in addition to his pension, hand received
encashment of commutation to the extent of 40% i.e.
Rs.3,84,500/- and other retiral dues i.e. AFPP, AFGI, Gratuity
and leave encashment to the tune of Rs.16,01,455/-.
The aforesaid aspects have gone uncontroverted as the
respondent-husband has not appeared and contested the
matter. Therefore, we are disposed to accept the assertions.
This exposition of facts further impels us to set aside the
order of the High Court.
Consequently, the appeals are allowed, the orders
passed by the High Court are set aside and that of the Family
Court is restored. There shall be no order as to costs.
[PRAFULLA C. PANT]
APRIL 06, 2015.